Melanogenesis Hyperpigmentation and its Management

Environ Radiance

Melanogenesis Hyperpigmentation and its Management

Melanogenesis – What is it?

In short, melnogenesis is the process under which our skin goes to produce pigment, or melanin.

 

Function of Melanogenesis

Skin Mechanism Of Melanin
Skin Mechanism Of Melanin

Healthy functioning skin requires protection in many forms.  The purpose and function of melanogenesis is essentially to provide UV protection.

The pigment in our skin called melanin is produced by a cell in the basal layer called the melanocyte, which is delivered to the surrounding keratinocytes via dendrites and melanosomes, where the melanin granules then sit over the nucleus of the keratinocyte, protecting the DNA of that cell.

 

Process of Melanogenesis

Melanogenesis Structure
Melanogenesis Structure
  • Keratinocyte – skin cells that make up the bricks in the bricks and mortar like structure of our skin.  The keratinocytes signal to the melanocytes when undergoing stress of UV (and in some skin types, other forms of stress).
  • Melanocyte – cell in the basement membrane that produces melanin.
  • Melanin – pigment granules that will ultimately be delivered to the keratinocyte.  There are two types of melanin, eumelanin and pheomelanin.  When referring to hyperpigmentation we are predominantly referring to eumelanin.
  • Melanosome – an organelle that transports the melanin from the melanocyte to the keratinocyte, via the dendrites.
  • Dendrite – extensions of the melanocytes to the keratinocytes whereby melanosomes carry melanin.

Melanogenesis is a required function of our skin, but abnormal function of melanogenesis can cause irregularities in skin tone, or in some cases, skin cancers.

 

Commonly Seen Forms of Hyperpigmentation

  • Sun damage
  • Hyperpigmentation
  • Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation (PIHP)

 

Stimuli of Melanogenesis

Human Skin Mechanism Of Melanin And Facial Dark Spots
Human Skin Mechanism Of Melanin And Facial Dark Spots

Melanogenesis is predominantly for protection from UV rays, however, in some skin types, melanogenesis may be stimulated by other factors such as:

  • Stressors (such as irritation)
  • Trauma
  • Hormones
  • Heat
  • Genetic Predisposition

Melanogenesis is always stimulated by inflammation.

 

A skin type that is more likely to tan, is also more likely to have their skin darken after a trauma such as a thermal burn or cut, this is called Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentaiton.

Once pigmentation is formed, it cannot be cured, only managed long term.

 

How Environ Radiance Product Targets Pigmented Skin?

  1. First normalise for healthy skin with the vitamin step-up system (using Vitamin A)
  2. Then target with confidence and add on focus care radiance+ range

 

6 Stages of  Melanogenesis: Management at Every Stage with Environ Focus Care Radiance+ Product Range

Stage 1: Reduction of UV exposure

Key ingredients and their roles:

  • SPF – first line of defence in blocking UVA + UVB combined with antioxidants to prevent free radical induced hyperpigmentation.
  • Panthenol – essential to normal epithelial function.  Dexpanthenol has been shown to have an anti-inflammatory effect on experimental ultraviolet-induced erythema.
  • Honeybush – a known antioxidant and may help to guard against external stressors that stimulate melanogenesis.
  • Vitamin C & E – as antioxidants, provide protection against UV induced free radicals.  Vitamin E can absorb UV energy.  Please note that Vitamin C and E are not sunscreens.
  • Neem Leaf Liquid – this highly technical ingredient works when the skin is exposed to UV rays, and prevents the stimulation of a signalling pathway that is responsible for the formulation of dendrites in melanocytes and the release of the enzyme tyrosinase.
  • Sakura Extract B – an anti-inflammatory that inhibits histamine release associated with Post-Inflammatory Hyperpigmentation (PIH/PIPH).
  • Niacinamide – promotes skin growth and cell renewal, but more importantly has a large role in protecting the skin from blue light which can cause pigmentation.

 

How Pigmented Skin Develops

Stage 2: Inhibition of tyrosinase

Key ingredients and their roles:

  • Biobenefity
    • Inhibits NF-kB (Nuclear Factorkappa B)
    • Melanocyte Growth Factor is produced by NF-kB activation
    • Thus, could inhibit the melanocyte proliferation through the reduction of NF-kB transcription, guarding the skin against photoageing and pigmentation
  • Sakura Extract B – inhibits histamine release, which is known to stimulate melanocytes to produce melanin

 

Stage 3: Competitive block of tyrosine activation (MSH)

Key ingredients and their roles:

  • SepiWhite
    • Developed from Phenylalanine.  SepiWhite is a very powerful and very unique agent.
    • SepiWhite ‘antagonizes’ the pre-curser of tyrosinase, thus reducing the tyrosinase activation and its action.  Tyrosinase is essential to melanin synthesis within the melanocyte.
    • In conjunction with the use of AHA’s, lightening can be seen within 7 days.

 

Stage 4: Inhibition of tyrosine conversion

Key ingredients and their roles:

  • Alpiniawhite
    • Is an extract of the seeds Alpinia Katsumadai Hayata
    • Researchers have recently discovered a new signalling pathway of tyrosinase synthesis, and in the process, found a unique appraoch in suppressing melanin production.
    • Suppresses the process of melanogenesis by ‘putting the brakes’ on the acceleration of tyrosinase.
  • Lactic Acid
    • The exact mechanism of lactic acid on tyrosinase inhibition is not known, however the correlation has been noted.
    • Lactic acid is also effective in increasing desquamation of pigmented keratinocytes resulting in a brighter complexion.

 

Stage 5: Reduction of melanin transfer into the keratinocytes

Key ingredients and their roles:

  • Alpha Arbutin
    • Derived from bearberry and exhibits antioxidant activity.
    • Alpha-arbutin has an increasing amount of research attesting to its effectiveness for brightening an uneven skin tone.
    • A strong alternative for hydroquinone and those who cannot tolerate it, as arbutin naturally breaks down into hydroquinone.  Hydroquinone is made naturally in our bodies.
    • Works by inhibiting enzymatic oxidation of tyrosine and DOPA, thereby blocking epidermal melanin biosynthesis.
  • SepiWhite
    • Melanotropin (MSH) controls skin pigmentation regulation.
    • It controls tyrosinase activity, melanin synthesis and the melanosome.  In this case, it regulates melanin synthesis.
  • Vitamin C – is an antioxidant, and interacts with the copper ions at the tyrosinase-active site and inhibits action of the enzyme tyrosinase, thereby decreasing the melanin formation.

Stage 6: Reduction of pigmentation

Key ingredients and their roles:

  • Clairju
    • Clairju works to inhibit the phagocytic appetite of the keratinocyte to uptake the synthesized melanin which are contained in melanosomes.
    • Technically, this means the inhibition of the uptake of melanosomes into the keratinocytes.
  • SepiWhite
    • Melanotropin (MSH) controls skin pigmentation regulation.
    • It controls tyrosinase activity, melanin synthesis and the melanosome.  In this case it regulates the melanosome.
  • Princess Care
    • Helps to protect the basement membrane and prevents the generation of stagnant melanin by inhibiting tryptase.
    • Tryptase is a substance released by mast cells when under stress and causes extreme inflammation in the skin.  It is mainly found in skins that have had high exposure to UV rays.
    • Tryptase has been seen to promote the degradation of the dermal matrix and epidermal matrix.  It has also been shown to destroy the epidermal base line which causes the epidermis and dermis to separate.
  • Niacinamide – has been found to inhibit melanosome transfer from melanocytes to keratinocytes.

 

Using the Environ Step Up System will provide an increasing dose of Vitamin A into your skin without causing irritation.

 

Presented By: Fiona Moss – Margifox Distributors